Memahami Perjalanan "Kampung Cyber" Melalui Lensa Actor Network Theory


Alfandya Alfandya, Fathul Wahid


Penelitian terdahulu menunjukkan tingginya risiko kegagalan dari proyek-proyek penerapan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi (TIK) untuk pembangunan. Salah satu tantangan utamanya adalah mendapatkan kepercayaan dari masyarakat dan memastikan bahwa program-program itu lestari. Penelitian ini akan membahas detail proses implementasi TIK untuk pembangunan menggunakan lensa Actor Network Theory. Detail proses implementasi TIK nantinya akan dianalisis berdasarkan fase-fase pada Actor Network Theory.  Studi kasus penelitian ini adalah sebuah desa bernama “Kampung Cyber” di Yogyakarta yang sudah menerapkan TIK sejak tahun 2008. Penelitian ini merupakan hasil dari studi kualitatif berdasarkan wawancara dan observasi dari masyarakat Kampung Cyber beserta dengan tokoh-tokoh utama dalam implementasi TIK. Detail temuan penelitian ini dapat dijadikan referensi dalam implementasinya di daerah lain. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan Actor Network Theory mampu memetakan bagaimana proses implementasi TIK di Kampung Cyber. Hasil analisis juga menunjukkan perubahan peran Ketua RT yang di masa awal menjadi sangat dominan, yang akhirnya digantikan oleh masyarakat. 



Previous studies have documented failures in various information and communication technology for development (ICT4D) projects. One of the main challenges in ICT4D project is gaining the trust of the community and ensuring its sustainability. This paper presents stories from ICT4D project implementation through the lens of Actor Network Theory (ANT). The case is a village called "Kampung Cyber" in Yogyakarta. This study employs a qualitative approach using data gathered from interviews with the main actors and observations in Kampung Cyber. Details from the findings may be adapted as a reference to ICT4D project implementation in similar context. The finding unveil that the theory is very useful to explain the implementation process along with involved actors. The study also finds that the role of the leading actor (i.e. the head of neighborhood unit)) diminishes over time and the dominant role is taken over by the community.    

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